Ottoman Empire: Turkish empire that expanded across the Middle East and the Balkans at its zenith. Existed from Late Middle Ages to the aftermath of WW1.
Seljuk Empire: Turkish empire, a primary rival of the Byzantines. Existed in the Mid. Middle Ages.
Abbassaid Caliphate: Arab empire that expanded across much of the Middle East. Primary rivals were Crusaders and later Mongols. Existed in Early-Mid. Middle Ages.
Umuyyad Caliphate: Arab, Moorish Empire that expanded across the Middle East, North Africa, and later Spain. Famous for the conquest of Visogoth Spain until its defeat in the Battle of Tours. Existed in Early Middle Ages.
Rashidun Calipahate: First Islamic caliphate in the early Middle Ages.
Safavid Dynasty: Persian empire existing from the late Middle Ages to the Enlightment Era.
Mughal Empire: Indian empire existing from late Middle Ages until the establishment of the British Raj in the 1800's.
Mali Empire: West African empire based on the gold and salt trade. Mid Middle Ages.
ISIL: No words necessary. Considered by most nations to be a terrorist organization.
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